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Spread Spectrum:

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Amateur Radio

    Barry McLarnon, VE3JF has compiled a Wireless LAN Modem Product Directory. This is a survey of wireless LAN modem products currently available.

    On Phil Karn's, KA9Q, WWW page, he describes several amateur digital applications regarding digital audio and digital coding techniques.

    On N6GN's Higher Speed Packet WWW Page --> --> Glenn Elmore, N6GN, describes his Layer 3 TNC Project Hardware complete with block diagrams, phasenoise and spectral plots, and information on L3TNC, which is a DSSS radio.

    Lew Shannon, K0RR, lshannon@uh2309p02.daytonoh.ATTGIS.COM is pushing the edge of packet radio networking. He has a 2mbs high speed packet link working over a 1/2 mile path on 910mhz between W8PLQ and himself. They are using wireless LAN (AT&T's Wavlan) cards at 250mw using spread spectrum technology. He found it necessary to put a 33ele loop yagi with hardline up at about 45ft in an attempt to get over the trees.

    They are getting a measured 98% packet reliability rate over the link. They are using the standard packet driver that comes with the WavLan cards. His JNOS 1.10i system serves as the router and bridge to the Ohio 19.2kb UHF packet network.

    The 386/20 system has an Ethernet adapter which is linked to his Win95 486/66. The differences in throughput over the WavLan link and Ethernet are hardly noticeable when moving large files via FTP (it's FAST).

    This was a low budget operation with hardline scrounged from a local cable company that was doing large scale conversion to fiber. The real deal was getting access to some early beta versions of the WavLan cards that were no longer needed. It's amazing what you can do when the price is right!

    On Part 15 Devices WWW Page by Lee Fry, AA0JP, you can find links to information about Part 15 Wireless LAN (WLAN) and consumer devices that may be of use to amateur radio experimenters. The focus is on part 15 devices at the chip, board, or box level.


Academic


Regulations


Organizations

    The Wireless Opportunities Coalition is a diverse group of organizations and companies dedicated to preserving and expanding the opportunities for growth in the wireless industry. The Coalition's primary focus is to support the development, manufacture, and use of wireless communications and related devices which are not licensed by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) but are regulated under "Part 15" of the FCC's rules. Many of these devices share the 902-928 MHz frequency band.


Commercial


Books and Technical Reports

    1973

    Spread Spectrum Communications, NATO AGARD Lecture Series No. 58, National Technical Information Service AD-766-914, July 6, 1973.


    1976

    Robert Dixon, Spread Spectrum Systems, New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1976. (no longer in print; see second edition entry -- 1984 and third edition entry -- 1994)

    Robert Dixon, ed., Spread Spectrum Techniques, New York, IEEE Press, 1976.


    1979

    A. J. Viterbi and J. K. Omura, Principles of Digital Communication and Coding, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1979.

    Spread Spectrum Communications (99), May 79 NTIS/PS-79/0494/9.

    Spread Spectrum Communications (188), May 79 (EI) NTIS/PS-79/0495/6.


    1980

    Brumbaugh, et al., Spread Spectrum Technology, a series of papers presented at the 1980 Armed Forces Communications Electronics Association show printed in the August 1980 issue of Signal, available from AFCEA, Skyline Center, 5205 Leeburg Pike, Falls Church, VA 22041.

    W. C. Scales, "Potential Use of Spread Spectrum Techniques in Non-Government Applications," MTR-80W335, The MITRE Corporation, McLean, VA, 1980.


    1982

    S. W. Golomb, Shift Register Sequences, Aegean Park Press, Laguna Hills, California, 1982.

    J. E. Hershey, Proposed Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Voice Techniques for Amateur Radio Service, US Department of Commerce, NTIA Report 82-111, 1982.

    J. K. Holmes, Coherent Spread Spectrum Systems, New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1982.


    1984

    J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1983.


    1984

    Robert Dixon, Spread Spectrum Systems, New York, John Wiley & Sons, 2nd edition, 1984.


    1985

    M.K. Simon, J. Omura, R. Scholtz, and K. Levitt, Spread Spectrum Communications Vol. I, II, III. Rockville, MD. Computer Science Press, 1985. (no longer in print; see second edition entry -- 1994)

    R.E. Ziemer and R.L. Peterson, Digital Communications and Spread Spectrum Systems, New York, Macmillan, 1985.

    R.E. Ziemer and R.L. Peterson, Introduction to Digital Communications, New York, Macmillan, 1985.

    D.J. Torrieri, Principles of Secure Communication Systems, Boston, Artech House, 1985.


    1986

    G.R. Cooper and C.D. McGillem, Modern Communications and Spread Spectrum, New York, McGraw-Hill, 1986.


    1988

    D.L. Nicholson, Spread Spectrum Signal Design: LPE and AJ Systems, Rockville, Maryland, Computer Science Press, 1988.


    1989

    R. A. Dillard, Detectability of Spread-Spectrum Signals, Norwood, MA, Artech House, 1989.


    1991

    A. Kesteloot and C. L. Hutchinson, The ARRL Spread Spectrum Sourcebook, The American Radio Relay League, Newington, CT, 1991.


    1993

    Norman Abramson, ed., Multiple Access Communications -- Foundations for Emerging Technologies, New York, IEEE Press, 1993.


    1994

    Robert C. Dixon, Spread Spectrum Systems with Commercial Applications, New York, John Wiley & Sons, 1994.

    Simon, Omura, Scholtz, and Levitt, Spread Spectrum Communications Handbook, Revised Edition, New York, McGraw-Hill, 2nd edition, 1994.


    1995

    Roger L. Peterson, Rodger E. Ziemer, and David E. Borth, Introduction to Spread Spectrum Communications, 1/e, New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, 1995.

    Andrew J. Viterbi, CDMA Principles of Spread Spectrum Communication, Addison-Wesley, 1995.

    Viterbi, Andrew J. (1991). Wireless Digital Communication: A View Based on Three Lessons Learned. IEEE Communications Magazine, September 1991. Reprinted in Multiple Access Communications: Foundations for Emerging Technologies, Norman Abramson, editor. IEEE order no PC0287-3. An excellent paper by Dr. Viterbi currently with QUALCOMM, Inc in San Diego, CA. This page is been provided by Phil Karn, KA9Q.

    Glas, Jack. (1996). The principles of Spread Spectrum communication a short tutorial on spread spectrum (with illustrations). From the web pages of Wireless Indoor Spread Spectrum Communication Equipement,

    Hendricks, Dewayne, WA8DZP. (1995) Spread Spectrum and the Amateur Radio Service - Recent Developments PSR #60 Fall 1995. TAPR. Tucson, AZ.

    Bible, Steve, N7HPR. (1995) Spread Spectrum - It's not just for breakfast anymore! QEX. The American Radio Relay League. Newington, CT.


    Thesis
    Smith, Darryl, VK2TDS. (1995) A Spread Spectrum Packet Radio Network Report submitted in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Engineering (UTS) in Electrical Engineering. Academic Supervisor: A/Prof. Sam Reisenfeld. UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY SYDNEY, SCHOOL OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING


Chronology of Amateur Publications

    The following citations chronical spread spectrum related articles in Amateur Radio pubilications -- QST, QEX, the AMRAD Newsletter, 73 Amateur Radio Today, CQ, and Ham Radio. Many of these articles are reprinted in The ARRL Spread Spectrum Sourcebook. These articles are indicated by the symbol. The book is available from the American Radio Relay League, 225 Main Street, Newington, CT 06111.

    See also a bibliography of Journal Articles and Books and Technical Reports.


    1980

    Paul Rinaldo, W4RI, "Spread Spectrum and the Radio Amateur," QST, pp. 15-17, Nov 1980.


    1981

    W. Dale Clift, WA3NLO, "Happenings -- AMRAD Gets Special Waiver for Spread-Spectrum Experiements," QST, May 1981.

    Hal Feinstein, WB3KDU, "Using Microprocessor-Controlled Rigs for Frequency Hopping," AMRAD Newsletter, June 1981.

    Hal Feinstein, WB3KDU, "Experiments #1 and #2," AMRAD Newsletter, July 1981.

    Hal Feinstein, WB3KDU, "Spread Spectrum Invades Packet Radio," AMRAD Newsletter, Ju1y 1981.

    Hal Feinstein, WB3KDU, "10-Meter Frequency Hopping," AMRAD Newsletter, Aug 1981.

    Hal Feinstein, WB3KDU, "SS Codes," AMRAD Newsletter, Sep 1981.

    Hal Feinstein, WB3KDU, "Spread-Spectrum -- A Report from AMRAD," 73 Amateur Radio Today, Nov 1981.

    Hal Feinstein, WB3KDU, "Mobile Frequency Hopper," AMRAD Newsletter, Dec 1981.


    1982

    Hal Feinstein, WB3KDU, "Self Enforcement," AMRAD Newsletter, Jan 1982.

    Hal Feinstein, WB3KDU, "AO for the Future," AMRAD Newsletter, Jan 1982.

    Hal Feinstein, WB3KDU, "Experiment #5," AMRAD Newsletter, Jan 1982.

    Hal Feinstein, WB3KDU, "Amateur Spread Spectrum Experiments," CQ, July 1982.

    Hal Feinstein, WB3KDU, "Civilian Uses of Spread Spectrum," AMRAD Newsletter, Sep 1982.

    Hal Feinstein, WB3KDU, "Exploding a Myth," AMRAD Newsletter, Oct 1982.

    Hal Feinstein, WB3KDU, "Shift-Register Update," AMRAD Newsletter, Oct 1982.


    1983

    William Sabin, W0IYH, "Spread-Spectrum Applications in Amateur Radio," QST, p. 16, July 1983.

    Hal Feinstein, WB3KDU, "Spread Spectrum News," AMRAD Newsletter, Aug/Sep 1983.

    Hal Feinstein, WB3KDU, "A New Frequency Hopping Experiment," AMRAD Newsletter, Aug/Sep 1983.

    Hal Feinstein, WB3KDU, "Second STA Program Formulated," AMRAD Newsletter, Aug/Sep 1983.

    Hal Feinstein, WB3KDU, "Drop-in Channel Assignments," AMRAD Newsletter, Aug/Sep 1983.

    Terry Fox, WB4JFI, "Frequency Control of ICOM Portable Radios," AMRAD Newsletter, Aug/Sep 1983.


    1984

    Feinstein, WB3KDU, "Experiment Update," AMRAD Newsletter, May/Jun 1984.

    Chuck Phillips, N4EZV, "Frogs or a Primer on Hoppers," AMRAD Newsletter, May/Jun 1984.

    "Second Spread-Spectrum STA," QEX, June 1984.

    "FCC Grants Spread-Spectrum STA," QEX, July 1984.

    Feinstein, WB3KDU, "Direct Sequence Rules," AMRAD Newsletter, Nov/Dec 1984.


    1985

    Feinstein, WB3KDU, "AMRAD Frequency Hopping Beacons," AMRAD Newsletter, Jan 1985.

    Feinstein, WB3KDU, "Thue-Moore Sequence Experiment," AMRAD Newsletter, Jan 1985.

    Feinstein, WB3KDU, "Repeaters and Spread Spectrum," AMRAD Newsletter, Mar 1985.

    Feinstein, WB3KDU, "Direct Sequence Oscillator Works!," AMRAD Newsletter, Mar 1985.

    Feinstein, WB3KDU, "Good Books for the Experimenter," AMRAD Newsletter, Mar 1985.

    Feinstein, WB3KDU, "Hide Spread Spectrum Transmitter Hunt," AMRAD Newsletter, Mar 1985.

    Rohde, "Digital HF Radio: A Sampling of Techniques," Ham Radio, Apr 1985.

    "Spread-Spectrum Day at the FCC," QEX, June 1985.

    "Skywave Propagation and Spread Spectrum," AMRAD Newsletter, July 1985.

    "ARRL Spread-Spectrum Committee," QEX, Sep 1985.


    1986

    "Some Notes on Authentication for the Packet Radio Command Channels," AMRAD Newsletter, Jan 1986.

    David Newkirk, AK7M, "Happenings -- Our New Spread-Spectrum Rules," QST, p. 45, Apr 1986.

    Hal Feinstein, WB3KDU, "Spread Spectrum: Frequency Hopping, Direct Sequence and You," QST, p. 42, June 1986.

    "Will the Real LPI Please Stand Up...," AMRAD Newsletter, July 1986.

    Andre Kesteloot, N4ICK, "Practical Spread-Spectrum: A Simple Clock Synchronization Scheme," QEX, pp. 4-7, Oct 1986.

    Andre Kesteloot, N4ICK, "Experimenting With Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum," QEX, pp. 5-9, Dec 1986.


    1987

    Andre Kesteloot, N4ICK, "First Steps in Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum," AMRAD Newsletter, Vol XIV, No. 1, pp. 5-9, Jan 1987.

    Andre Kesteloot, N4ICK, "Extracting Stable Clock Signals from AM Broadcast Carriers for Amateur Spread-Spectrum Applications," QEX, pp. 5-9, Oct 1987.


    1988

    Andre Kesteloot, N4ICK, "Practical Spread Spectrum: Achieving Synchronization with the Slip-Pulse Generator," QEX, pp. 6-11, May 1988.


    1989

    Andre Kesteloot, N4ICK, "A Practical Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum UHF Link," QST, May 1989.

    David Newkirk, AK7M, "Happenings -- Spread-Spectrum Systems in 902-928 MHz," QST, May 1989.

    Andre Kesteloot, N4ICK, "Practical Spread Spectrum: Clock Recovery with the Synchronous Oscillator," QEX, June 1989.

    Andre Kesteloot, N4ICK, "Practical Spread Spectrum: An Experimental Transmitted-Reference Data Modem," QEX, June 1989.

    Andre Kesteloot, N4ICK, "A Spread-Spectrum Repeater," AMRAD Newsletter, Nov 1989.

    James Vincent, G1PVZ, "Injection-Locked Synchronous Oscillator in a Single IC Package," AMRAD Newsletter, Nov 1989.


    1990


    1991


    1992


    1993


    1994


    1995

    Harold Price, NK6K, "Digital Communcations -- Spread Spectrum: It's Not Just for Breakfast Any More!," QEX, pp. 22-27, June 1995.


Journal Articles

    The following citations are spread spectrum related journal articles. Several of the articles below are reprinted in Multiple Access Communications -- Foundations for Emerging Technologies, edited by Norman Abramson and published by the IEEE Press. These articles are indicated by the symbol.

    This is by no means an exhaustive list. If you feel that a paper should be added or deleted, please contact the author at N7HPR (www).


    1959

    J. P. Costas, "Poisson, Shannon, and the Radio Amateur," Proceedings of the IRE, vol. 47, pp. 2058-2068, Dec 1959.


    1967

    R. Gold, "Optimal Binary Sequences for Spread Spectrum Multiplexing, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. IT-13, pp. 619-621, Oct 1967.


    1968

    R. Gold, "Maximal Recursive Sequences with 3-valued Recursive Cross-Correlation Functions," IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. IT-14, pp. 154-156, Jan 1968.

    J. H. Lindholm, "An Analysis of the Pseudo-Randomness Properties of Subsequences of Long m-Sequnces," IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. IT-14, pp. 569-576, July 1968.


    1969

    Heinz H. Schreiber, "Self-Noise of Frequency-Hopping Signals," IEEE Transactions on Communications, COM-17, No. 5, Oct 1969.


    1971

    E. J. Groth, "Generation of Binary Sequences with Controllable Complexity," IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol. IT-17, pp. 288-296, May 1971.

    A. R. Cohen, J. A. Heller, and A. J. Viterbi, "A New Coding Technique for Asyncronous Multiple Access Communication," IEEE Transactions on Communication Technology, pp. 849-855, Oct 1971.


    1973

    Proceedings of the 1973 Symposium on Spread Spectrum Communications, Naval Electronics Laboratory Center, San Diego, California, March 13-16, 1973.

    G. Solomon, "Optimal Frequency Hopping Sequences for Multiple Access," Proceedings of the 1973 Symposium on Spread Spectrum Communications, Naval Electronics Laboratory Center, San Diego, California, pp. 33-35, March 13-16, 1973.


    1974

    IEEE Proceedings, Vol. 62, No. 1, (Special Issue on Industrial, Scientific, and Medical Applications of Microwaves), Jan 1974.

    A. Lempel and H. Greenberger, "Families of Sequences with Optimal Hamming-Correlation Properties," IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, pp. 90-94, Jan 1974.

    L. R. Welch, "Lower Bounds on the Minimum Cross Correlation of Signals," IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, May 1974.


    1976

    E. L. Key, "An Analysis of the Structure and Complexity of Nonlinear Binary Sequence Generators," IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, vol. IT-22, pp. 732-736, Nov 1976.

    F. J. MacWilliams and N. J. A. Sloane, "Pseudo-Random Sequences and Arrays," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 64, pp. 1715-1729, Dec 1976.


    1977

    P. S. Henry, "Spectrum Efficiency of a Frequency-Hopped-DPSK Mobile Radio System," Conference Record of the 30th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, pp. 7-12, 1977.

    George R. Cooper and Raymond W. Nettleton, "A Spread Spectrum Technique for High Capacity Mobile Communications," Conference Record of the 27th Vehicular Technology Conference, Orlando, Florida, pp. 98-103, March 16-18, 1977.

    Scott H. Cameron, "The Efficiency of Spread Spectrum Signaling with Respect to Spectrum Utilization," 19th IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibilty Symposium, Aug 1977.

    IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-25, No. 8, Aug 1977. (Special issue on spread spectrum communications)

    • G. K. Huth, "Optimization of Coded Spread Spectrum Systems Performance," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-25, No. 8, pp. 73-77, Aug 1977.
    • R. A. Scholtz, "The Spread Spectrum Concept," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-25, No. 8, pp. 748-755, Aug 1977.
    • P. M. Hopkins, "A Unified Analysis of Pseudonoise Synchronization by Envelope Correlation," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-25, No. 8, pp. 770-778, Aug 1977.
    • J. K. Holmes and C. C. Chen, "Acquisition Time Performance of PN Spread-Spectrum Systems," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-25, No. 8, pp. 778-783, Aug 1977.
    • R. B. Ward and K. P. Yiu, "Acquisition of Pseudonoise Signals by Recursion-Aided Sequential Estimation," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-25, No. 8, pp. 784-794, Aug 1977.
    • M. B. Pursley, "Performance Evaluation for Phase-Coded Spread Spectrum Multiple-Access Communication -- Part I: System Analysis," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-25, No. 8, pp. 795-799, Aug 1977.
    • M. B. Pursley and D. V. Sarwate, "Performance Evaluation for Phase-Coded Spread-Spectrum Multiple-Access Communication -- Part II: Code Sequence Analysis," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-25, No. 8, pp. 800-803, Aug 1977.
    • K. Yao, "Error Probability of Asynchronous Spread-Spectrum Multiple Access Communication Systems," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-25, No. 8, pp. 803-809, Aug 1977.
    • M. B. Pursley and H. F. A. Roefs, "Numerical Evaluation of Correlation Parameters for Optimal Phases of Binary Shift-Register Sequences," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-25, No. 8, pp. 1597-1604, Aug 1977.

    H. F. A. Roefs and M. B. Pursley, "Correlation Parameters of Random and Maximal Length Sequences," Electron. Lett., Vol. 13, No. 16, pp. 488-489, Aug 4, 1977.

    Leslie A. Barry, "Spectrum Metrics and Spectrum Efficiency: Proposed Definition," IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Vol. EMC-19, No. 3, Aug 1977.

    Raymond W. Nettleton and George R. Cooper, "Error Performance of a Spread-Spectrum mobile Communications System in a Rapidly-Fading Environement," Conference Record of National Telecommunications Conference, Los Angeles, California, Dec 5-7, 1977.


    1978

    D. P. Grybos and G. R. Cooper, "A Receiver Feasibility Study for the Spread Spectrum High Capacity Mobile Radio Systems," 28th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, March 22-24, 1978.

    R. F. Ormondroyd, "Spread Spectrum Communication in the Land Mobile Service," IEE Conference on Communication Equipment and Systems, Birmingham, England, April 4-7, 1978.

    John R. Juroshek, "A Preliminary Estimate of the Effects of Spread-Spectrum Interference on TV," NTIA Report 76-8, PB-286623, June 1978.

    T. Dvorak, "Compatibility of Spread-Spectrum Signals with Narrow-band-FM Receivers in VHF mobile Networks," IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibility Symposium, pp. 19-23, June 20-27, 1978.

    J. R. Juroshek, "Compatibility Analysis of Spread-Spectrum and FM Land Mobile Radio Systems," NTIA Report 79-23, August 1979.

    William F. Utlaut, "Spread Spectrum Priciples and Possible Application to Spectrum Utilization and Allocation," IEEE Communications Society Magazine, Sep 1978.

    S. A. Musa and W. Wasylkiwskj, "Co-Channel Interference of Spread Spectrum Systems in a Multiple User Environment," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-26, No. 10, pp. 1405-1413, Oct 1978.

    G. R. Cooper and R. W. Nettleton, "A Spread-Spectrum Technique for High-Capacity Mobile Communications," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. VT-27, No. 4, Nov 1978.

    G. R. Cooper, "Multi-Service Apspects of Spread-Spectrum mobile Communications System," Conference Record of MIDCON/77, Dallas, Texas, Dec 12-14, 1978.

    D. V. Sarwate and M. B. Pursley, "Hopping Patterns for Frequency-Hopped Multiple-Access Communications," Proceedings 1978 IEEE International Conference on Communications, vol. 1, pp. 7.4.1-7.4.3.


    1979

    C. S. Gardner and J. A. Orr, "Fading Effects on the Performance of a Spread Spectrum Multiple Access Communications System," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-27, No. 1, pp. 143-149, Jan 1979.

    G. R. Cooper, et al., "Cellular Land Mobile Radio: Why Spread Spectrum?," IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 17, No. 2, March 1979.

    James J. Mikulsky, "Mobile Radio: To Spread or Not to Spread," IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 17, No. 4, July 1979.

    A. J. Viterbi, "Spread Spectrum Communications -- Myths and Realities," IEEE Communications Magazine, pp. 11-18, May 1979.

    D. E. Borth and M. B. Pursley, "Analysis of Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum Multiple-Access Communication Over Rician Fading Channels," IEEE Transaction on Communications, vol. COM-27, pp. 1566-1577, Oct 1979.

    M. B. Pursley and H. F. A. Roefs, "Numerical Evaluation of Correlation Parameters for Optimal Phases of Binary Shift-Register Sequences," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-27, pp. 1597-1604, Oct 1979.

    R. C. Hanlon and C. S. Gardner, " Error Performance of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum on Nonselective Fading Channels," IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. COM-27, No. 11, pp. 1696-1700, Nov 1979.

    J. E. Mazo, "Some Theoretical Observations on Spread Spectrum Communications, " Bell System Technical Journal, Vol. 58, No. 9, pp. 2013-2023, Nov 1979.

    Dilip V. Sarwate, "Bounds on Cross Correlation and Autocorrelation of Sequences," IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. IT-25, No. 6, pp. 720-724, Nov 1979.

    Paul S. Henry, "Sprectrum Efficiency of a Frequency-Hopped DPSK Mobile Radio System," 29th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference, vol. VT-28, pp. 327-329, Nov 1979.

    J. Juroshek, "A Compatibility Analysis of Spread Spectrum and FM and Mobile Radio Systems," U. S. Department of Commerce, NITA Report 79-23, Aug 1979.


    1980

    G. L. Turin, "Introduction to Spread-Spectrum Antimultipath Techniques and their Application to Urban Digitial Radio," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 68, pp. 328-353, Mar 1980.

    D. V. Sarwate and M. B. Pursley, "Cross Correlation Properties of Pseudo-Random and Related Sequences," Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 68, pp. 598-619, May 1980.

    L. B. Milstein, R. L. Pickholtz, D. L. Schilling, "Optimization of the Processing Gain of an FSK-FH System," IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. COM-28, pp. 1062-1079, Jul 1980.

    D. L. Schilling, L. B. Milstein, R. L. Pickholtz, and R. Brown, "Optimization of the Processing Gain of an M-ary Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Communication System," IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. COM-28, pp. 1389-1398, Aug 1980.

    F. D. Garber and M. B. Pursley, "Optimal Phases of maximal-length Sequences for Asynchronous Spread-Spectrum Multiplexing," Electron. Letter, Vol. 16, pp. 756-757, Sep 1980.

    IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-28, Sept. 1980. (Special issue on military communications)


    1981

    IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. VT-30, Feb 1981. (Special issue on mobile spread spectrum communications)

    • C. L. Weber, G. K. Huth, and B. H. Batson, "Performance Considerations of Code Division Multiple Access Systems," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. VT-30, pp. 3-10, Feb 1981.
    • O. C. Yue, "Hard-Limited Versus Linear Combining for Frequency-Hopped Multiple-Access Systems in a Rayleigh Fading Environment," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. VT-30, pp. 10-14, Feb 1981.
    • R. W. Nettleton and G. R. Cooper, "Performance of a Frequency-Hopped Differentially Modulated Spread-Spectrum Receiver in a Rayleigh Fading Channel," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. VT-30, pp. 14-29, Feb 1981.

    F. D. Garber and M. B. Pursley, "Performance of Offset Quadriphase Spread-Spectrum Multiple-Access Communications," IEEE Transactions on Communcations, Vol. COM-29, pp. 305-314, Mar 1981.

    S. L. Maskara and J. Das, "Concatenated Sequences for Spread Spectrum Systems," IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, Vol AES-17, No. 3, May 1981.

    D. Raychaudhuri, "Performance Analysis of Random Access Packet Switched Code Division Multiple Access Systems," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-29, pp. 895-901, Jun 1981.

    M. K. Simon and A. Polydoros, "Coherent Detection of Frequency-Hopped Quadrature Modulations in the Presence of Jamming -- Part I: QPSK and QASK; Part II: QPR Class I Modulation," IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. COM-29, pp. 1644-1668, Nov 1981.

    E. A. Geraniotis and M. B. Pursley, "Error Probability Bounds for Slow Frequency-Hopped Spread-Spectrum Multiple Access Communications Over Fading Channels," Proceedings 1981 International Conference on Communications.


    1982

    L. B. Milstein and D. L. Schilling, "Performance of a Spread Spectrum Communcation System Operating Over a Frequency-Selective Fading Channel in the Presence of Tone Interference," IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. COM-30, pp. 240-247, Jan 1982.

    L. B. Milstein, S. Davidovici, and D. L. Schilling, "The Effect of Multiple-Tone Interfering Signals on a Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Communication System," IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. COM-30, pp. 436-446, Mar 1982.

    IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-30, No. 5, May 1982 (Special Issue on Spread Spectrum Communications)

    • R. Scholtz, "The Origins of Spread-Spectrum Communications," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-30, No. 5, pp. 822-854, May 1982.
    • R. Pickholtz, D. Schilling and L. Milstein, "Theory of Spread Spectrum Communications -- A Tutorial," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-30, No. 5, pp. 855-884, May 1982.
    • L. B. Milstein and D. L. Schilling, "The Effect of Frequency Selective Fading on a Noncoherent FH-FSK System Operating with Partial-Band Intereference," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-30, No. 5, pp. 904-912, May 1982.
    • M. B. Pursley, D. V. Sarwate, and W. E. Stark, "Error Probability for Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum Multiple-Access Communications -- Part I: Upper and Lower Bounds," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-30, No. 5, pp. 975-984, May 1982.
    • E. A. Geraniotis and M. B. Pursley, "Error Probability for Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum Multiple-Access Communications -- Part II: Approximations," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-30, No. 5, pp. 985-995, May 1982.
    • E. A. Geraniotis and M. B. Pursley, "Error Probabilities for Slow-Frequency-Hopped Spread-Spectrum Multiple-Access Communications Over Fading Channels," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-30, No. 5, pp. 996-1009, May 1982.


    1983

    O. Yue, "Spread Spectrum Mobile Radio, 1977-1982," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. VT-32, No. 1, Feb 1983.


    1984

    D. Laforgia, A. Luvison, and V. Zingarelli, "Bit Errot Rate Evaluation for Spread-Spectrum Multiple-Access Systems," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-32, pp. 660-68, Jun 1984.

    A. Polydoros and C. L. Weber, "A Unified Approach to Serial Search Spread-Spectrum Code Acquisition -- Part I: General Theory," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-32, pp. 542-549, May 1984.

    A. Polydoros and C. L. Weber, "A Unified Approach to Serial Search Spread-Spectrum Code Acquisition -- Part II: A Match-Filter Receiver," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-32, pp. 550-560, May 1984.

    D. V. Sarwate, M. B. Pursley, and T. U. Basar, "Partial Correlation Effects in Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum Multiple-Access Communications Systems," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-32, pp. 567-573, May 1984.

    IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. SAC-2, July 1984. (Special issue on mobile radio)

    • Joseph Y. N. Hui, "Throughput Analysis for Code Division Multiple Accessing of the Spread Spectrum Channel," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, vol. SAC-2, No. 4, pp. 482-486, Jul 1984.


    1985

    A. Polydoros and C. L. Weber, "Analysis and Optimization of Correlative Code-Tracking Loops in Spread-Spectrum Systems," IEEE Transactions on Communication, Vol. COM-33, No. 1, pp. 30-43, Jan 1985.

    A. J. Viterbi, "When Not to Spread Spectrum -- A Sequel," IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 23, pp. 12-17, Apr 1985.

    E. A. Geraniotis and M. B. Pursley, "Performance of Coherent Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum Communications Over Specular Multipath Fading Channels," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-33, No. 6, pp. 502-508, Jun 1985.

    M. B. Pursley and W. E. Stark, "Performance of Reed-Solomon Coded Frequency-Hop Spread-Spectrum Communications in Partial-Band Interference," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-33, No. 8, pp. 767-774, Aug 1985.

    P. Van Der Gracht and R. Donaldson, "Communication on Electric Power Distribution Circuits," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-33, No. 9, Sep 1985.

    IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. SAC-3, Sept. 1985. (Special issue on military communications)

    M. B. Pursley and D. J. Taipale, "Error Probabilities for Spread-Spectrum Packet Radio with Convolutional Codes and Viterbi Decoding," in IEEE Military Communications Conference Record, Vol. 2, pp. 438-441, Oct 1985.

    V. Uzunoglu and M. White, "The Synchronous Oscillator: A Synchronization and Tracking Network," IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits, vol. SC-30, No. 6, pp. 1214-1224, Dec 1985.


    1986

    E. A. Geraniotis and M. B. Pursley, "Performance of Noncoherent Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum Communications Over Specular Multipath Fading Channels," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COMM-34, pp. 219-226, Mar 1986.

    V. Uzunoglu and M. White, "Some Important Properties of Synchronous Oscillators," Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 74, No. 3, pp. 516-518, Mar 1986.

    M. B. Pursley, "Frequency-Hop Transmission for Satellite Packet Switching and Terrestrial Packet Radio Networks," IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. IT-32, pp. 652-667, Sep 1986.


    1987

    M. B. Pursley, "The Role of Spread Spectrum in Packet Radio Networks," Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 75, No. 1, pp. 116-134, Jan 1987.

    M. B. Pursley and D. J. Taipale, "Error Probabilities for Spread-Spectrum Packet Radio with Convolutional Codes and Viterbi Decoding," in IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-35, No. 1, pp. 1-12, Jan 1987.

    J. S. Lehnert and M. B. Pursley, "Error Probabilities for Binary Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum Communications with Random Signature Sequences," IEEE Transactions on Communications, Vol. COM-35, No. 1, pp. 85-96, Jan 1987.

    A. Polydoros and John Silvester, "Slotted Random Access Spread-Spectrum Networks: An Analytical Framework," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. SAC-5, No. 6., pp. 989-1002, Jul 1987.


    1989

    S. Verdu, "Recent Progress in Multiuser Detection," Advances in Communications and Signal Processing, 1989.


    1990

    IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 8, May 1990 (Special issue on spread spectrum)

    IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 8, Jun 1990 (Special issue on spread spectrum)


    1991

    M. Nakagawa and T. Hasegawa, "Spread Spectrum for Consumer Communications -- Applications of Spread Spectrum Communications in Japan," IEICE Transactions on Communications, Feb 1991.

    J. T. Taylor and J. K. Omura, "Spread Spectrum Technology: A Solution to the Personal Communications Services Frequency Allocation Dilemma," IEEE Communications Magazine, Feb 1991.

    IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 40, May 1991. (Special issue on mobile radio)

    • K. S. Gilhousen, I. M. Jacobs, R. Padovani, A. J. Viterbi, L. A. Weaver Jr., and C. E. Wheatley III, "On the Capacity of a Cellular CDMA System," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 40, No. 2, May 1991.
    • R. L. Pickholtz, L. B. Milstein, and D. L. Schilling, "Spread Spectrum for Mobile Communications," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 40, No. 2, pp. 313-322, May 1991.

    R. Kohno, "Pseudo-Noise Sequences and Interference Cancellation Techniques for Spread Spectrum Systesm -- Spread Spectrum Theory and Techniques in Japan," IEICE Transactions on Communications, Vol. J74-B-I, No. 5, pp. 1083-1092, May 1991.

    A. J. Viterbi, "Wireless Digital Communications; A View Based on Three Lessons Learned," IEEE Communications Magazine, Sep 1991.


    1992

    IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 10, May 1992 (Special Issue on Spread Spectrum)

    R. Esmailadeh, M. Nakagawa, and A. Kajiwara, "Power Control in Packet Switched Time Division Duplex Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum Communications," Vehicular Technology Society 42nd VTS Conference, Denver, CO, May 10-13 1992.


    1993


    1994

    S. D. Lingwood, H. Kaufmann, and B. Haller, "ASIC Implementation of a Direct-Sequence Spread-Spectrum RAKE-Receiver," IEEE 44th Vehicular Technology Conference, Stockholm, Sweden, pp. 1326-1330, Jun 8-10 1994.

    C. Trabelsi and A. Yongacoglu, "A Reduced Complexity DS-CDMA System for Personal Communication Networks," IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 43, No. 3, pp. 577-583, Aug 1994.

    P. Wei and J. R. Zeidler, "Adaptive Interface Suppression for CDMA Overlay Systems," IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 12, No. 9, pp. 1510-1523, Dec 1994.


    1995

    R. Kohno, R. Meidan, and L. B. Milstein, "Spread Spectrum Access Methods for Wireless Communications," IEEE Communications Magazine, pp. 58-67, Jan 1995.

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